was interested in Chapter 2 : Shamanic Healing and decided to explore. I believe
that the word Shaman or shamanism is very hard to define. What is Shaman? Who is
shaman? In what conditions or situations do we use the word shaman to address
the person? Anyone who travels this word and another word is called Shaman? Does
this means that Jesus and Muhammad are also shaman?
Since the topic of shamanism was too broad, I decided to narrow my topic
to Sakhalin Ainu shamanism.
At first, I
search all books that discuss Ainu in general including ethnographies. I picked
some good books from them and looked at their bibliography. This is because most often good books include good footnote
and bibliography. This is how I found this book. Since HIL library did not have
this book, I document delivered this book.
What are important tips to find resources? Find a book that contains good bibliography. From it, we can
find search more books. In addition, I found that it is important to notice the
public year of book. In my case, due to the topic, it is good idea for me to use
both old books that was published 1907 also new book that was published 1996.
example, in order for me to find my text that contains the information of
Sakhalin Ainu shamanism, I look at these books.
Hideo Fujimoto.1964. Ainu no Haka. Tokyo: Nihonkeizaishinbunsya
Hitoshi Watanabe. 1973. The Ainu Ecosystem. Seattle: University of
Inez M. Hilger. 1971. Ainu, a Vanishing People. Oklahama : University of
Neil Gordon Munro. 1963. Ainu. New York: Columbia University Press
A .H. Savage Landor. 1893. Along with the hairy Ainu. London: William
Clowes and Sons Limited
Sugawara Kousuke. 1966. Gendai no Ainu. Tokyo: Gendaisya
The Ven. Dr. John Batchelor. 1971. Ainu life and Lore. Tokyo: Kyobunkwan
William W. Fitzhugh
and Chisato O. Dubreuil. 1996. Ainu. Los Angeles: University of Washington Press
The Ainu share in common
with their Siberian neighbors- the Tungus, the Ul’ta (Orok), and the Nivkhi
For example, Ainu people
have a basic mythological them of “wondering in the other world” in which a
seamanlike hero Samaikur traveled to the multilayered other world to get back
the spirit of the goddess who was abducted by an evil sprit.
Shamanistic rite, Tusu,
a shaman becomes possessed by a spirit or spirits who usually receive
instructions from higher deities or ancestors and convey their messages through
According to Pilsudski’s observations, many Sakhalin Ainu shamanistic
very close to practices that were taken place in people in Siberia.
Seance usually took place in a dim hut and was conducted by a male
shaman in a state of ecstasy (shamanistic trance)
Séance was well organized community ritual that include gradual falling
into a state of self-oblivion by continuously striking drums and use of
intoxications, the incitation of protective spirits, strong dance movements,
spirit gesture and imitation sounds, and divine revelations.
Ritual sacrifice of Dogs was commonly performance before or after
the ritual. According to the book, many native groups of Eastern Siberia
believed that sacrificing and displaying dead dogs could help prevent epidemic
disease and other misfortunes (263).
Initiated after having endured a disease early in life. It was
taken as a sign that the spirit had chosen that individual as a vessel. His
tasks include healing to divination to protection of the community.
Sakhalin Ainu initiation mythology describes the origins of
shamanism as a mythical encounter between the divine spirit and human beings.