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Duties and Prohibitions


Islamic law maintains five principles by which acts are to be categorized in light of divine authorities. There are Wajib/Fard, Mandub, Mubah, Makruh and Haram(John,327). Rhaman notes that Islamic law in its first intention is a system of ought and ought-not rather than a specific legal code. (Rhaman, 83). He also classified action into five categories. (1) Obligatory, (2)Recommended, (3)Permissible, (4)Reprehensible and (5)Forbidden(Rhaman, 84).

1 Wajib/Fard -Obligatory and absolutely required. An example is Five pillars of Islam. The performance of a duty is rewarded by God whereas non performance is punished (John, 327).

Watt introduces Five pillars of Islam as the fundamental religious obligations. 1, the witness (Shahada) 2, the prayer (Salat) 3, the alms (Zakat) 4, the fasting (Ramadan) 5, the pilgrimage (Hajj).

A Shahada contains two essential themes in Islam. "I witness that there is no God but Allah; I witness that Muhammad is His Messenger" it is the confession of faith (Watt, 162).

B Salat.The prayer or worship called Salat. Salat must be said and performed while facing in the direction of Mecca. Qurans says;

"Ricite that which has been revealed to you of the Book and keep up prayer; surely prayer keeps one away from indecency and evil, and certainly the remembrance of Allah is the greatest, and Allah knows what you do" (Sura 29:45)


C Zakat Alms. Zakat is the form of giving to those who are less fortunate. According to Richard, giving the Zakat is considered an act of worship because it is a form of offering thanks to God for the means of material well being one has acquired (Richard, 14). Quran says;

" And whatever you lay out as usury, so that it may increase in the property of men, it shall not increase with Allah; and whatever you give in charity, desiring Allah’s pleasure-it is these that shall get manifold"(Sura 30:39)

D Ramadan. Ramadan is the fast that consists of total abstinence from food, drink, smoking and sexual intercourse from before sunrise until after sunset on each of the thirty days of the month (Watt, 163). Quran says;

"O you who believe! fasting is prescribed for you, as it was prescribed for those before you, so that you may guard against evil"(Sura 2:183)

E Hajj. People who are physically and financially capable are obligated to make a pilgrimage to Mecca in the month of Dhu al-Hijja(Richard, 15). Simon also states that the Hajj signifies proper devotion to the will of God, and literally means ‘an effort’ (Simon, 53). Quran says;

" In it are clear signs, the standing place of Ibrahim, and whoever enters it shall be secure, and pilgrimage to the House is incumbent upon men for the sake of Allah, every one who is able to undertake the journey to it; and whoever disbelieves, then surely Allah is Self sufficient, above any need of the worlds"(Sura3: 97)


2Mandub Recommended. An example is extra player beyond the required salat. The performance is rewarded, but non performance

is not punished (John, 327).


3 Mubah -Permissible or indifferent. This is something may be permissible in that it does not entail disobeying God. An example is eating pork and other forbidden food under the extreme circumstances. Quran says;But if one is forced by extreme necessity, without willful disobedience, nor transgressing due limits-then he is guiltless. For Allah is oft-Forgiving., Most merciful" (Sura 2:173).

>Mubad prescribes neither rewarded nor punishment.

4 Makruh -reprehensible. This category does not prohibit certain acts or substances, although it abominates them. An example is an act is very close to harm is the wearing of fold or silk by men. This behavior is not prohibited, but God rewards its avoidance. Makruh is the lowest degree of prohibitions (John, 328).


5 Haram - forbidden. What is permissible to Muslim called Halal. Harm means that which ahs been definitively forbidden by God whether as understood from the divine world itself of in the agreement of qualified legal opinions. An example of Haram is signifying prohibition of something that is impure, abominable, and sinful such as pork, alcohol, murder, adultery and irreverence (John 329).